Some cannabis connoisseurs will say that THC is their love language; others will say CBD all the way. These popular cannabis compounds get most of the attention, but did you know that they are only two of the 113 cannabinoids that have been found and isolated within the cannabis plant?
Before getting into what all these cannabinoids are and what they do, it’s important to first understand the endocannabinoid system and what it does for your health. In short, the endocannabinoid system exists within your central and peripheral nervous system and contains receptors that send messages throughout your body to help achieve and maintain homeostasis. These endocannabinoid receptors are the same as the phytocannabinoids found in cannabis, which will either modulate or stimulate your existing receptors when ingested, which can cause the psychoactive, pain-relieving effects you know and love. For more detail on this whole process, check out our full guide to the endocannabinoid system.
A single cannabis plant can contain 100 or more cannabinoids, but today we’re going to focus on those that are the most commonly occurring and potent. You’ll notice that some of these cannabinoids are the raw acid version of another cannabinoid, which is the natural state it’s in before the molecular structure is changed through a heating process called decarboxylation.
WHAT IS DECARBOXYLATION?
Raw cannabinoids exist within the trichomes of fresh cannabis flowers. The raw chemical state contains what is called an extra carboxyl ring in its chain, which slowly breaks down when exposed to light, heat, and air, eventually converting into the decarboxylated version that is actively absorbed by the body. This process happens in smaller doses during the curing process that dries the cannabis leaves, but it’s not until you put a flame to the flower and take a big inhale that you’ll truly decarb the cannabinoids and get, for example, psychoactive THC instead of raw THCA. Each cannabinoid has a different boiling point where decarboxylation will occur, but it typically happens between 200 and 400 degrees Fahrenheit.
Now that you have the basics on the endocannabinoid system and decarboxylation, here are the 11 most common cannabinoids you’re most likely to find in any given cannabis plant.
CANNABIGEROLIC ACID AKA CBGA
Cannabigerolic Acid is the “stem cell” cannabinoid, meaning all cannabinoids first start off as CBGA before they are broken down by enzymes and evolve into either THCA, CBDA, or CBCA (more on those ahead). The ability to produce CBGA is what sets cannabis apart from other plants. Once the enzymes break down CBGA and it molds into its intended branch, these different cannabinoid lines provide unique sets of benefits. Then, once those raw cannabinoid compounds are decarboxylated when smoked or vaped, you get a whole different cannabinoid yet again.
CANNABIGEROL AKA CBG
CBG is a minor cannabinoid that is not as well known as CBD or THC, but should be; it’s the chemical parent of both of those cannabinoids, meaning CBG turns into THC or CBD when it is exposed to UV light or heat. Typically, cannabis plants contain less than 1% CBG. Medicinally, it is a powerful vasodilator that may have the ability to reduce intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. It has also shown a beneficial effect on patients with inflammatory bowel disease and Huntington’s Disease. Breeders are working on creating more CBG-heavy strains by cross-breeding and experimenting with extraction times, and a medicinal strain is in the works by a Dutch medicine company.
TETRAHYDROCANNABINOLIC ACID AKA THCA
THCA is the precursor to THC, the most popular cannabinoid. The two abbreviations are used interchangeably on many dispensary labels despite the fact that THCA and THC are technically two different cannabinoids. THCA in its own form, which exists in the trichomes of raw and live plants, does not contain the same psychoactive effects as THC. Preliminary research on THCA is showing some promising medical and therapeutic benefits like slowing cell growth in prostate cancer and helping reduce seizures in epilepsy patients. These benefits are why superfood lovers add raw cannabis leaves to juices, smoothies, and salads.
When cannabis flowers are trimmed and left to cure, the heat exposure allows the decarboxylation process to begin, which slowly starts to convert the plant’s THCA content to THC. But it’s not until you either heat it up and make some cannabutter or pack a bowl and put a flame to it that the decarboxylation process reaches the right temperature and you get…
DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL AKA THC
When THCA is heated to its boiling point of about 315 degrees Fahrenheit, it takes on the psychoactive form of THC we all know and love. THC works by binding to CB1 receptors in the endocannabinoid system in a process that works like a lock and key. The stimulation from THC is what produces the euphoria and psychoactivity of cannabis, which can affect people in many different ways depending on the strain and quality of herb you’re smoking. If you’re smoking an indica strain, it’s more likely to mellow you out and help you fall asleep, but if it’s a sativa, you might find a jolt of euphoric energy or a case of the giggles. Some people don’t even notice significant differences from one strain to another.
What’s important to remember about THC’s effects is that everyone’s endocannabinoid system is unique and the effects will vary depending on your body’s existing cannabinoid levels. If you’ve ever felt paranoid or anxious after smoking weed, it could be an overexpression of CB1 receptors, which will mellow out quickly if you can center your thoughts and focus on one thing for a couple minutes. On the contrary, if you’re suffering from depression, PTSD, or have other mental health concerns that affect your quality of life, the CB1 stimulation could be exactly what your system needs to find balance again. Other potential health benefits of THC include treatment for nausea, loss of appetite, and similar symptoms in chemotherapy patients. One pilot clinical study showed THC to inhibit tumor cell proliferation in glioblastoma multiforme patients and increased life expectancy by 24 weeks.
TETRAHYDROCANNABIVARIN AKA THCV
THCV is made of the same intoxicating molecules and acts on the same receptors as THC, but the effects are quite different. It’s said that the ‘high’ you get from THCV is more psychedelic but also more fleeting than the high from THC. This is why it’s called the “race car” cannabinoid – it comes on fast and leaves almost as quickly, unlike the slower onset of other cannabinoids. THCV is most potent in landrace African sativas like Durban Poison and other strains made with its genetics, which probably explains why strains with poison in the name come on so intensely for some people (me). The boiling point of THCV is 428 degrees Fahrenheit, so if you’re vaping this one you’re going to want to turn it up to a higher than usual setting.
Studies have shown THCV to act as an appetite regulator, as cannabis users are less likely to be obese than non-cannabis users. Another study suggests that cannabis users have lower levels of fasting insulin, which could show potential for cannabis as a medication for diabetics.
CANNABINOL AKA CBN
CBN is a popular therapeutic and non-psychoactive cannabinoid known for its insomnia-fighting effects. Unlike most cannabinoids that originate as CBG, CBN stems from THC that has degraded after overexposure to air, light, or heat. If you have a poor storage system (get your hands on a Cannador) or some old herb lying around, save those nugs for nighttime as they will be higher in CBN, which is a great sleep aid and appetite stimulant. According to Steep Hill Labs, 5mg of CBN is equivalent to 10mg of Diazepam.
CANNABIDIOLIC ACID AKA CBDA
CBDA is another raw cannabinoid that exists in the trichomes of raw cannabis leaves. As decarboxylation occurs it converts to CBD, the medical cannabis powerhouse. This is another cannabinoid that exists in only trace amounts, so breeders are working on strains higher in CBDA rather than THCA in order to increase the availability of its effects. If you add raw cannabis leaves to a juice, smoothie, or salad, you may experience some of the anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving effects that are similar to CBD, although there is little data to determine its effectiveness versus that of the decarboxylated version.
CANNABIDIOL AKA CBD
As you’ve probably figured out, CBD is the decarboxylated version of CBDA and it’s responsible for most of the health benefits when it comes to cannabis products. CBD is so popular around here that there’s actually an entire guidededicated to it and how it works with the endocannabinoid system. In short, CBD modulates CB2 receptors located throughout the central and peripheral nervous system while stalling the fatty acid that breaks down these receptors. This process helps the endocannabinoid system achieve and maintain homeostasis, which is why CBD has demonstrated anti-seizure, anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving properties that offer alternative relief for a variety of conditions. CBD has no psychoactive properties, so you can reap all of these benefits without the high.
CANNABICHROMENATE ACID AKA CBCA / CANNABICHROMENE AKA CBC
CBCA/CBC is the third most commonly occurring cannabinoid after THC and CBD. These non-psychoactive compounds are known for powerful anti-inflammatory effects that can also be used to control swelling, and CBC’s effects are supposedly more potent when combined with THC and CBD to produce an entourage effect, in which cannabinoids work together to intensify their benefits. One study showed CBC to block pain and inflammatory responses, and another suggests that the way it acts on inflammation with a lack of side effects is safer than NSAIDs like ibuprofen.
CANNABIDIVARIN AKA CBDV
CBDV is similar to CBD in that it is non-psychoactive and boasts some serious medical potential. One study has shown CBDV to decrease the severity of certain types of seizures, and scientists have been researching its effects as an anticonvulsant for people with epilepsy. GW Pharmaceuticals is currently testing CBDV’s effects on patients with autism, Rett syndrome, and epilepsy. CBDV-heavy strains are most commonly found in landrace Indica strains throughout northwest India and Pakistan.
The more you know about the different cannabinoids and how they interact with your body, the easier it will be to discover different strains and products that work best for you. Knowledge is power when taking charge of your own wellness, so keep learning, stay curious, and smoke up those cannabinoids.
Content sourced by Jane Dope.
1 month ago
H.R. 1595, better known as the SAFE Banking Act, received a full House floor vote this afternoon, passing the chamber in a bipartisan 321-103 vote. It was the first time that stand-alone cannabis legislation was considered by the full U.S. House of Representatives. The bill aims to remove the cash-only element from state-legal cannabis industries by explicitly giving banking rights to cannabis businesses and related companies. The bill’s primary sponsor Colorado Rep. Ed Perlmutter (D) said during his opening remarks that the Act’s main purpose is to support “public safety, accountability, and states rights.” Some activists have criticized the effort for not going far enough to reform federal cannabis laws, but many cannabis advocates have applauded the SAFE Banking Act as a logical first step toward repealing the federal prohibition of cannabis. “For the first time ever, a supermajority of the House voted affirmatively to recognize that the legalization and regulation of marijuana is a superior public policy to prohibition and criminalization.” — NORML Political Director Justin Strekal, in a statement Lawmakers from both major political parties rose in support of the bill. “The Financial Services Committee heard testimony in February that these cash-only businesses and their employees have become targets for violent criminals,” said Rep. Maxine Waters (D-CA), who chairs the Financial Services Committee, during the floor’s 40-minute debate. “The SAFE Banking Act addresses this serious problem by providing safe harbor to financial institutions that choose to serve state-regulated cannabis businesses.” H.R. 1595 — which enjoyed more than 200 cosponsors in the House — now moves to the Senate for consideration. The bill is supported by numerous law enforcement and banking organizations, including the National Association of Attorneys General, the American Bankers Association, and the Credit Union National Association. Original Article
1 month ago
Curaleaf has released its Ground Flower Pods on a limited basis in New York, marking the first time a flower product has been made available under the state’s medical cannabis program. The company said that while the pods – designed to be used with a vaporizer – are currently only available on a limited basis, they will be available throughout the state in the coming weeks. Joseph Lusardi, CEO of Curaleaf, called the product “a win” for the state’s medical cannabis patients. “Flower is cannabis in its raw form and therefore the most affordable form of cannabis. We can increase patient access by providing more affordable products and offering more options for patients in the medical program.” – Lusardi, in a statement The Health Department approved the addition of some flower products to the regime last year; however, sales of purely raw forms of cannabis are still not permitted. In the action, the agency also added lozenges, chewable tablets, and topicals to the list of products approved for sale in dispensaries. The Ground Flower Pods must be used with the company’s tabletop vaporizer. Each pod contains 350 milligrams of active cannabinoids in a 20:1 THC to CBD ratio in both Indica and Sativa strains. Curaleaf operates in 12 states with 49 dispensaries, 14 cultivation sites, and 13 processing centers. As of Sept. 17, there were 107,111 registered patients and 2,504 registered practitioners in the state.
1 month ago
Massachusetts will place a four-month ban on all sales of vaping products, the state’s governor announced Tuesday, ushering in the most extensive state-level crackdown on e-cigarettes after a mysterious illness has afflicted hundreds and killed nine people. The move is the latest response from policymakers to growing alarm about the popularity of e-cigarettes among young people and fears that the products, which have yet to be vetted by the Food and Drug Administration, pose unknown health risks. Bans on sales of flavored vaping products took effect this month in New York and Michigan, and the Trump administration said it plans to enact a similar regulation at the federal level. Flavored products have attracted particular scrutiny from policymakers who say they are getting children hooked on nicotine. But Massachusetts would go beyond a flavor ban to also temporarily eliminate tobacco and marijuana e-cigarettes from the market. Officials say the halt will allow time to properly investigate a crisis that’s expanded to 530 cases in 38 states as of last week, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “The purpose of this public health emergency is to temporarily pause all sales of vaping products so that we can work with our medical experts to identify what is making people sick and how to better regulate these products to protect the health of our residents,” Massachusetts Gov. Charlie Baker (R) said in a statement. San Francisco became the first major U.S. city to effectively ban all e-cigarette sales this summer by targeting products that have yet to gain FDA approval. But San Francisco’s policy will not go into effect until early next year, while Massachusetts’s new rules take effect immediately — and on a much larger scale. The state’s new policy drew swift criticism from e-cigarette advocates and companies that have long argued their products help rather than hurt public health by offering smokers an alternative. Some public health officials, too, have promoted vaping as a tool to reduce smoking among adults — notably in England, where vape shops sit on the grounds of some hospitals. Sixty-one potential cases of vaping-linked illness have been reported to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health as of Tuesday, the governor’s office said. Official investigations nationwide have connected many of the illnesses to marijuana products bought off the street, but no one item has been linked to all cases. And some patients have reported vaping nicotine, though health professionals note people may be reluctant to admit to using marijuana. As The Washington Post has previously reported, the illnesses are largely affecting young people: An investigation by state health departments in Illinois and Wisconsin traces the first signs of illness among 53 tracked patients to April. The victims — mostly young men with a median age of 19 — overwhelmingly ended up in the hospital, many under intensive care. A third went on respirators. Patients typically experienced coughing, chest pain or shortness of breath before their health deteriorated to the point that they needed to be hospitalized, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Other reported symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever and weight loss. Many victims have ended up with acute respiratory distress syndrome, a life-threatening condition in which fluid builds up in the lungs and prevents the oxygen people’s bodies need to function from circulating in the bloodstream. While the illnesses have given new urgency to long-brewing concerns over vaping, lawmakers explaining new e-cigarette restrictions in other states have focused on the broader threat of teen addiction. Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer (D) announced her state’s flavored e-cigarette ban Sept. 4 as state health officials declared youth vaping a public health emergency, highlighting research on nicotine’s harm to developing brains and on substances in vaping products with unclear long-term health effects. Michigan’s health department also cited evidence that youth who use e-cigarettes are more prone to take up smoking, which most experts believe to be more dangerous than vaping products. A 2018 government-funded study found that the percentage of U.S. high school seniors who report vaping nicotine within the past month doubled over just a year, sparking a new wave of alarm that e-cigarettes are reversing decades of decreasing youth tobacco use. E-cigarette use among teens has risen faster than any product tracked in the survey’s 40-plus years of existence, researchers say. Preliminary results from this year’s version of the National Institutes of Health-funded study indicated another jump in student vaping, and researchers expressed particular concern over their finding that about 1 in 9 teens vapes nicotine near-daily. Massachusetts is no exception when it comes to vaping’s popularity among young people. More than 40 percent of the state’s youth reported trying e-cigarettes in 2017, and 1 in 5 said they used the products regularly, according to the governor’s office. High school students’ usage rates are six times as high as adults', the office said. While Massachusetts officials focused Tuesday on a need to investigate illnesses, they said that they, too, are concerned about youth vaping. “Vaping products are marketed and sold in nearly 8,000 flavors that make them easier to use and more appealing to youth,” Lt. Gov. Karyn Polito said in a statement. “Today’s actions include a ban on flavored products, inclusive of mint and menthol, which we know are widely used by young people.” The Massachusetts governor’s office seemed to anticipate concerns about smoking alternatives Tuesday, saying it will devote more resources to programs that encourage people to quit smoking and increase the capacity of the Massachusetts Smokers’ Helpline. Opponents still blasted the move as counterproductive. Austin Finan, a spokesman for leading e-cigarette manufacturer Juul, warned Tuesday that bans on the sale of vaping products will encourage a black market of products with “unknown ingredients under unknown manufacturing standards.” He added that bans will affect adult smokers’ ability to quit and push former smokers back to old habits. Gregory Conley, president of the nonprofit American Vaping Association, called Massachusetts’s halt on sales of nicotine vaping products “absolutely absurd,” emphasizing evidence that links the vaping-related illnesses to illegal and contaminated THC cartridges. “We agree with the FDA — if you don’t want to die or end up in the hospital, stop vaping illicit marijuana oils,” he said. The tough new regulations also dismayed small-businesses owners facing steep losses. Jonathan Lau, who runs two vape stores in Brighton, Mass., said he and other vape shop owners — part of the retail industry’s fastest-growing segment over the past decade — were “blindsided” by the governor’s announcement. With vaping products making up close to 90 percent of his shops’ sales, Lau said, he will probably have to close down. Employees have been told to show up for work Wednesday, but Lau does not think his stores will open. “Basically, it’s a death sentence for small businesses in the vape industry,” he said. Officials around the country have warned people to stop using e-cigarettes altogether while investigators try to get to the bottom of the illnesses and deaths. An executive order from California Gov. Gavin Newsom (D) last week directed the state’s Department of Public Health to launch a $20 million public awareness campaign about the risks of vaping both nicotine and cannabis substances. California health officials on Tuesday also joined the calls for consumers to stop vaping while the cause of vaping-linked illnesses remains unclear. Other states are signaling interest in following Michigan, New York and now Massachusetts’s lead in taking a tougher stance on e-cigarettes. “We’re seeing more and more states exploring what emergency powers they have,” said Michael Seilback, assistant vice president for state public policy at the American Lung Association. Seilback would not express an opinion on Massachusetts’s choice to suspend all vaping sales, telling The Post only that states are being “forced to make hard decisions” and emphasizing his group’s support for the bans on flavored vaping products that other places have adopted. He’s eager to see the Trump administration’s proposed ban on flavored vaping sales come to fruition. “We think that strong federal action would prevent a piecemeal approach where different jurisdictions are looking at these products differently,” he said. Original article
2 months ago
There is something special happening in Northern California’s cannabis community. In one of the most unique growing regions in the world, farmers have been living off the land and growing this country’s cannabis for decades. Now, this inherently sustainable, craft cannabis movement is rising to the forefront of California and the United State’s cannabis industry, setting the landscape that promises to set the standard of sustainable, ethical, and natural agricultural practices. Cannabis is rooted deep in human culture: its earliest written reference stems from Western China about 500BC. Traditionally grown outdoors in the lush environment where the plant naturally thrives, growing indoors is a relatively new, energy intensive method of cultivation. As Michael Steinmetz, CEO of FlowKana, states: “Indoor is simply a relic of prohibition and a cultural phenomenon that emerges when farmers have to go into hiding to protect their livelihoods while they cultivate this amazing plant. Indoor cultivation produces 25 times more CO2 than outdoor grows, and are 70 times more energy intensive than commercial office buildings. To produce just one kilo of cannabis indoors is equivalent to driving across the country five times!” Even though outdoor grows are clearly more energy efficient, the divide between sustainably cultivating cannabis in California’s ubiquitous Emerald Triangle and industrial farming practices (think massive, industrial indoor grows, sucking energy and water out of the desert in Southern California) is growing ever deeper. This is at odds with consumer behavior: trends are showing that consumers want to invest in sustainable, authentic, and local businesses, leading us to question whether hefty investments in these desert grows harkens the impending doom this burgeoning industry. Why go vast and vacuous when consumers crave niche and nostalgia? The California cannabis industry is like no other. Though there’s millennia of history behind the plant, the process, and the people whose livelihoods depend on it, the corporatization of cannabis is still very much in its infancy. This is equally thrilling and daunting. There’s promise and potential to correct social stigmas and injustices, to negate environmentally harmful agriculture practices, and to promote a plant with universal healing qualities. There’s also ample opportunity for big companies to elbow in: corporations are oozing in, focused on the bottom line with little regard for honoring the plant’s history, purpose, and potential. Surprising no one, the California cannabis industry is picking up steam to become a race to the quickest buck, abandoning the rich history, potent healing potential and complex social realities of the plant to dry up in the desert dust. It is time to get back to the roots of this industry. I had the privilege of spending a hot August day with the Humboldt County Grower’s Alliance (HCGA). My goal was to absorb all that Humboldt County and its cannabis community had to offer — to talk to farmers, to smell their flowering plants, to indulge in the abundance of natural beauty that is their every day. As it goes, we started the day at the HCGA office in Eureka. Walking out the offices’ white wooden door, we readied ourselves to tour cannabis country. Driving down the 101 past Ferndale, we made our way towards the coast on Mattole road. There, we were treated to some of the most spectacular views along the Lost Trails of the Pacific Ocean. It felt like we had been transported to another world. From there, we cut back inland towards Petrolia. The grandeur of the Mattole Valley became more apparent with every sharp turn and steep hill we climbed in the Subaru. This valley has been the epicenter of California’s cannabis industry since it’s community fled north from San Francisco in the 1960s and 1970s to live off the land. It was incredible to witness it for the first time with my own eyes. “This wasn’t a profiteering machine, it was getting back to the land, being self sufficient, and growing some cannabis to help promote and fund a vision of community.” — Terra Carter, Executive Director of HCGA says. During one of the loudest and most volatile times in this country’s history, Humboldt County cannabis flourished in a community built on a back-to-the-earth ethos. Cannabis, among seasonal vegetables, herbs, and animals provided these communities and families the resources to live in such remote locations. What transpired over the next few decades in this valley sounds like it was ripped from a summer blockbuster. With the ineptly named War on Drugs came military aircraft humming over the valley. The US government flew two U2s over Humboldt to build their battle plan against farmers. This is the same spy plane they flew over the USSR. Helicopters buzzed through the valley searching for plants. Sometimes, they came so low that their noise and resulting vibrations would break windows and knock down houses. Humboldt was like a war zone, complete with a few farmers holding their ground by gun. Others hid in the woods or fled from their property with their families- some temporarily, and others permanently. As the raids continued farmers developed innovative ways to keep their community and livelihoods going: some started to grow their plants on platforms high in the trees, others constantly scanned the skies, ready to pull their plants back from the fields and under the cover of the forest at a moment’s notice. As we drove deeper into the valley, I began to see the lengths to which farmers went to set their roots, both familial and agricultural, as far out of reach as possible. Seclusion protected these families from the National Guard and from the bad players in the area taking plants, money, and whatever else they fancied by force. Though I met with people who were ostensibly breaking the law, I did not get the sense I was surrounded by criminals — because I wasn’t. Humboldt (like the rest of California, the USA, and the world) definitely has had their fair share of criminals in the industry, but for the most part this is a community of outlaws. They were never criminals. They simply did not have the legal infrastructure in place to run their business. It’s important to remember this distinction, especially since every person in the cannabis industry today is a federal outlaw. After driving for miles on dirt roads wrapped tightly around the mountain, we came across a signless intersection. We turned left up a steep one-lane road that we followed for a mile. At the peak we found cleared land and a single structure atop. “Welcome to DewPoint,” crowed the fearless, smiling Andelain. She and her husband are second and third generation farmers. They grew up overlooking the Mattole Valley and now live on a sustainable mountain property they built themselves. Nestled amid the mountains for a decade, their property relies entirely on solar energy for all of their electrical needs. Andelain likes to boast that her cannabis is fully sun-grown. Meaning, not only do they grow without any artificial lights, but even the water irrigation pump is powered by the sun. Andelain and her husband remember this mountain as a thriving community since their earliest days in the area. “It wasn’t just your parents raising you, but your neighbors, and the people at the school and fire department. This was the community our parents started building with their cannabis businesses, and the one we continue to invest in today.”- Andelain During the years of quasi warfare in the Mattole Valley, Andelain remembers the fear she felt helping in her family’s garden, where they grew vegetables, fruits, and cannabis. “My earliest memory was being in the garden and hearing the ‘copter coming down the valley and my dad running through the garden thinking ‘That’s weird I never heard my dad move like that’. I remember my dads arm swooping around my body and pulling me up and running into the bushes with his hand around my mouth. Men in armor with rifles repelled down, cut our plants, and flew away. After that, my family moved into town. We lost everything we had on that mountain” Now, Andelain has the opportunity to carry out her life’s long purpose and passion: to bring high quality medicine and peace to those who need it, legally. Pure as her mission is, it is accompanied with bureaucratic side effects. Unsurprisingly, California has some of the most extensive environmental laws in the country. To touch the land costs thousands of dollars in permitting and licensing. This is for good reason. California produces 17% of the country’s food and is constantly on the verge of drought. A state that is already reeling from the planet’s warming and is responsible for feeding nearly 1/5 of the country, it’s a sobering reality to consider placing an added burden on a state that’s already stretched thin on agricultural resources. Thankfully, California is taking some small but meaningful steps to abate this disaster. “Regulation has now given us the opportunity to be the most sustainably grown agriculture product in the world” says Carver. Most farms we saw in Humboldt have set up rain capture and storage containers to have water available throughout the dry months without needing to suck it out of aquifers. The special sauce of Humboldt County Cannabis that can’t be replicated or matched is it’s heritage. This growing region not only sprouted on off-the-grid farms- where all energy had to be produced on site and trash had to be at a minimum, with the closest garbage drop is sometimes 45 minutes away. But, it has also survived and evolved through military raids and environmentally disastrous moments. Humboldt has suffered. Their Redwood forests were indiscriminately leveled by industrial logging companies, while their rivers were overfished by commercial fishing companies. The community that lived off these lands did not stand for it. Several organizations, inside and outside the cannabis industry, banded together to protest these industries and their actions- one of which being the infamous 738-day tree-sit by Julia Butterfly. These industries decimated the environment- pushing the river’s salmon population close to extinction and polluting its waters with industrial runoff. After years of fighting for and implementing corrective policies and regulations, we were able to take a break in the heat of the day to go swimming in the now clear, crisp, and cool Mattole river. While the river and surrounding environment is healing itself, so to speak, this time around, there are no guarantees that nature can continually bounce back from the impact of big industry. I could see it in the way everyone talked about being able to swim in the river, that being able to dunk our heads into its crisp water, is a luxury that should never be taken for granted. To me, it was a sign that with dedicated advocates, smart policy, and responsible farming and business practices, supporting a cannabis industry in the region without impacting the environment is possible. With the California cannabis industry blooming in a world where the Amazon is burning, communities experience systemic water shortages, and corporations prioritize profit over people, there has never been a time where being an educated and active consumer is more important. Being a conscious consumer does make a difference: we are sowing the seeds from which the cannabis industry will continue to grow.